Sustainable Energy / Water Generation&Home Efficiency

humanityTo prove noble, any company must attempt to give back to humanity. The best way to do so would be an attempt to solve problems that affect humanity the most. Even better, is to focus a company’s energies on solutions to humanity’s problems. One of the few contemporary issues affecting humanity in the 21st century is energy and water resource. Concerns such as environmental pollution and depletion of resources have led to the modern operating environment being in desperate need for sustainable energy as a solution to the global energy crisis.

energy sourcesThe traditional forms of energy such as oil and natural gas are therefore being phased out in favor of sustainable energy sources like hydroelectricity, wind energy, solar power, geothermal, and wave energy. Water, on the other hand, has been recognized as a basic human want globally. This is despite the fact that a very small proportion of the global population has access to water in medically recommended quantities. It is in recognition of the wisdom in helping humanity that focuses on sustainable solutions to water and energy production as its core line of operation. Unlike some other power companies in this field that are profit oriented and view the venture as a market gap to be exploited. Therefore, profits are a secondary concern to us.

Our main objective is contributing to humanity. This differentiates us from other power producers, and that s why our members need to maintain their loyalty with us. We are your company of choice. Our commitment to our work can be seen in our dedication to this field.

In terms of sustainable energy,it has the necessary technological prowess to provide some of the most informed and strategic insights in this field. We have a footprint in all fields of sustainable energy. In addition to what we produce, here are types of sustainable energy generation that you need to know.

Hydroelectric power

Hydroelectric power uses the energy of the flowing water to produce electricity. The basic science involved in this technology entails creating a water reservoir/dam. The purpose of the dam is to create a water head, thereby storing potential energy. When the water is released from the dams via penstocks, it hits a series of turbines. The energy in the water rotates the turbines, effectively converting the initial potential energy to kinetic energy. After this, an alternator is used to convert the kinetic energy from the turbines to electric energy. The energy is then linked to a national grid that transmits it to an entire state.

This form of energy is used in many African countries. Some of the biggest hydroelectric dams globally that portray engineering marvel have been created along the major rivers such as the Nile and the Zambezi in Africa. This form of energy is sustainable and mostly large scale. One of the major limitations of hydroelectric power production is the inadequacy in small-scale production technologies. With our highly qualified experts, we provide the latest technological intervention to curb such limitations in this field.


Geothermal power

This form of sustainable energy takes advantage of steam reservoirs, deep in the earth’s surface to generate energy. The steam reservoirs are located mostly along tectonic plates or areas with high volcanic activity. Production of this form of energy is mostly large scale, with some of the largest volumes of this form of energy being produced in East Africa. A careful cost-benefit analysis is warranted before venturing into this form of energy production. The rationale behind this is that steam reservoirs in the earth’s surface are plenty, but the cost of exploration in some cases outweighs the expected benefits.

Nevertheless, most of the African countries that were initially dependent on hydroelectric power are now diversifying to this form of energy. This is because hydroelectric energy fluctuates depending on the amount of water in rivers; this makes it vulnerable and unreliable in periods of droughts. On the other hand, geothermal energy is clean, draught proof and consistent all year round. With respect to this form of energy, we do the cost-benefit analysis before deciding to venture into any form of energy productions. Better yet, we also guide clients concerning the latest developments in this sector.

Wave energy/Tidal power/Wind Energy/Bioenergy/Solar Energy

wave energyThese forms of energy represent the latest developments in technological fronts with respect to energy. Wave energy taps its energy from waves in the oceans. On the other hand, tidal energy takes advantage of ocean tides. Just as the name suggests, wind energy, solar energy and bioenergy tap energy from the wind, bioresources and solar respectively.We offer its clients strategic insights on these modern forms of energy. Our team of experts can guide you in assessing the feasibility of any of these modern alternatives.

Sustainable water

Shifting our focus to sustainable water generation, first, we recognize the importance of water as a prerequisite to life. We also recognize its global scarcity and the need for a cross-functional and multidisciplinary approach in tackling the issue. Secondly, we understand most of the challenges affecting water like the slow adoption of technology in this field as compared to other fields. With the stated in mind, we have come up with a dedicated team of water specialists that can provide insights concerning all aspects of clean water generation. Our experts have knowledge ranging from policy formulation and implementation to technological interventions and their feasibility in applicability to various situations. We are therefore aiming to improve efficiency resource utilization in every home.

In conclusion, we as a company appreciate the need for sustainability to ensure the longevity of the human race. We have therefore decided to concentrate our energies in this field, with specific emphasis on sustainable energy and water. We, therefore, remain the ideal power company to spearhead generation of clean energy and sustainable water production.

Cooling Technologies in Work Places

Several cooling technologies are in existent today and have found their way into most modern workplaces and offices. The coolers vary depending on the technology used, manufacturers, and the nature of a cooler itself among many other considerations. A breakdown of the basic components of coolers, the various available coolers for the workplace in the market today, together with a guide on selecting the most appropriate cooler for your workplace is the primary focus of this article.

Basic components of coolers

A basic cooler has the following components, a thermostat, a radiator, a pump, and a cooling fluid. A thermostat is used to regulate the cooling temperatures desired for a particular device. A radiator is used to cool the fluids used in the process, by exchanging their heat with the open air. A pump circulates the cooling fluid through the cooling system to facilitate the cooling effect. Lastly, the fluid in the cooler is the one responsible for the actual cooling. It does this by performing a heat exchange process with the medium placed inside. The fluid has to possess the necessary thermodynamic properties for effective functioning.

Classifications of coolers available in the market

Coolers have a wide range of classifications. They are classified based on energy principle in play, the use, size, and technology used. Let us discuss these classifications in details;

Energy principle in use

solar coolerCoolers can be classified based on the energy principle they use. In this respect, there are three main groupings that emerge. These include solar energy coolers, modern energy efficient coolers, and green coolers. Solar coolers harness solar energy and use it in the cooling process. These types of coolers have seen an increase in popularity in these modern times because they use renewable and clean energy. Modern energy efficient coolers have incorporated modern energy efficient principles recommended by governments worldwide in design. Lastly, green coolers have an environmental touch integrated into their design. Therefore, they are environmentally friendly and have adopted the recycling principles in their operations in line with the laid down eco-friendly guidelines.

The use

wine coolerCoolers can also be classified based on use. Three groupings come to fore including wine coolers, water coolers, and food coolers. Wine is best served cold or cool, and that is why wine coolers are responsible for storing wines. Most of the coolers in this category come with inbuilt cabinets and racks to hold the wines in position. Water coolers are more popular in offices and workplaces. As the name suggests, they are used to cool water. Food coolers, on the other hand, are responsible for keeping food in optimum temperatures.


Another classification of coolers is based on their size. Small coolers are generally cheap and petite. Medium coolers are slightly bigger while mega coolers are the biggest. Mega coolers are mostly used for large-scale applications, with medium coolers common in most households and offices. Small coolers have a limited range of applicability, though they can be used appropriately in relatively smaller offices.

Technology used

Coolers can further be classified based on technology used in their cooling system. The group of such coolers includes air-cooled, water-cooled, evaporative cooled, dry fluid cooled, and ammonia cooled. As the names suggest, water-cooled use water in their cooling operations. The air cooled uses dry air to operate. The evaporative cooled use the principle of evaporation to cool. Energy is absorbed from the medium and then cooled by the evaporating fluid resulting in cooling of the medium. Lastly, both ammonia cooling and dry fluid use ammonia gas and dry fluids such as sublimed iodine respectively.

Basic Guide to Choosing a Good Cooler for Your Work Place

To choose an ideal cooler for your office use, several factors have to be put into consideration. First, the range of application of the cooler has to be put in mind. In this respect, a careful analysis of the things the cooler will be cooling and their range of temperature is demanded. Wine coolers, for instance, should have an extra touch of aesthetic value and variable components to accommodate wines of different sizes.

wine storageSecondly, the size of the desired cooler must be established. Check the size that can store wine enough for your frequent visitors. Also, ensure the cooler can hold a number of items comfortably. If it is a wine cooler, you need a spacious unit to store enough collection. In some cases, an analysis will warrant large coolers not available in the market. Therefore, contracting a cooler manufacturing company to customize a unit for you is recommended. If this is not possible, one can buy several coolers available in the market instead of one big cooler.

Another factor to put in mind when selecting a cooler is the technology used. Most companies nowadays have signed international agreements to go green (environmentally friendly products). Therefore, such companies have to choose coolers with a touch of environmental consideration to prove their integrity. In other cases, some technologies used in coolers cannot be effectively used in some locations. Case and point: ammonia coolers cannot be used in factory settings since the gas in the cooler can easily react with the factory emissions. The technology used in a cooler should, therefore, be carefully assessed before choosing a cooler.

Another factor of importance when choosing a cooler is the cost implications. The trick, in this case, is to choose the optimum arrangement of price and quality. Remember, quality should never be compromised in favor of price. Location to place the cooler is another factor to consider. An example for this is coolers to be kept at the corner of a room. They should assume a tower structure, whereas coolers to be located on top of furniture should come fitted with a mat.

Lastly, the ease of maintenance should also be considered. You do not want to have a cooler that will take more than four days to repair once it breaks down. Luckily, a number of companies nowadays offer maintenance services for free based on their terms and conditions. Nevertheless, to be on the safe side, workplaces should have their own internal technician to troubleshoot such devices whenever repair work is needed.

Energy Efficient Kitchens to Save Water and Energy

save water energyStatistics show that in modern homes the water and electricity bills are three times the value they would have been, should water saving and energy saving principles have been adopted. In these tough economic times, energy and water saving should be a priority in every home. Strategies should be formulated to ensure water bills remain low.

In many modern homes, kitchens are responsible for the largest proportions of wastage in terms of energy and water. This is because several numbers of a household’s gadgets are found in kitchens. Additionally, a relatively larger amount of the water consumed in homes is actually used in kitchens. With respect to water losses in kitchens, things such as kitchen faucets and wastage of water in garbage disposals play a big role too. Therefore, putting in mind an idea of saving on water bills in homes plus a strategy to ensure water efficiency is highly recommended.

This article will attempt to recommend some tactics, with specified focus on kitchen faucets and use of garbage disposals. This is based on the realization that the two account for the largest proportion of water usage in kitchens, and as such, saving in this frontier will have big implications to the wider water saving initiatives in the kitchen, and consequently in the entire home.

Kitchen faucets

Kitchen faucets are responsible for releasing water in kitchen sinks while washing dishes or rinsing vegetables. They are mostly located on the countertops or the sinks and come in various shapes, sizes, and designs. Single handle kitchen faucets possess a single handle for regulating the flow of water together with temperature. Water flow is regulated by the upward and downward movement of the handle. On the other hand, the temperature is controlled by handle tilts.

Their ease of use makes these faucets popular in hotels, bars, and restaurants. Double-handed kitchen faucets have two separate handles for cold and hot water functionality. They are very convenient in instances of frequent breakages. In such instances, one of the functioning handles can always be used instead of the other. Modern technological developments have led to the inception of hand free faucets. These faucets take advantage of smart technology to be operated remotely with minimum physical human interaction.


How kitchen faucets can be used to save on water

In the case of single handle faucets, care should be taken not to live the faucets open when not in use. This saves on water. Using the tilt functionality to regulate temperate only when required ensures savings on energy. While using double-handed faucets only one handle should be operated at a time. This facilitates both energy and water saving.

Another way of ensuring water saving from faucets is during the selection stage. Proper selection of faucets is imperative in order to get the faucet that best fits your water saving needs. This may entail a detailed analysis but is definitely worth the effort. Secondly, the selected one should be a good quality faucet. All the seals and valves in the faucets should be checked to ensure they are functioning properly before purchase. With respect to striking a balance between price and quality when purchasing faucets, never compromise on quality for the sake of price.

Garbage disposal

Garbage disposalSolid waste is the primary waste product in many home kitchens. Proper garbage disposal is very important in every kitchen because failure to dispose of the garbage responsibly may be a health hazard. In kitchens to be specific, waste disposal should be done with care and at regular intervals. The worst way to dispose of food waste is by use of water to flush them down a drain through the sink. This may lead to huge water losses because we cannot compromise on the amount of water to use in such instances since absolute cleanliness in not negotiable. This possesses a challenge to the water saving. However, using a garbage disposal is more efficient than pouring water to drain solid wastes through a sink.

How garbage disposal can be exploited to yield water savings in kitchens

Despite the challenge posed by water use in waste disposal, several strategies can nevertheless be adopted to yield water saving in this frontier. Most of the strategies deal with the garbage before it is disposed of. First, dispose the garbage at appropriate times. Do not wait until the garbage has started decomposing to dispose of it. This not only possesses a health risk but will also lead to use of large amounts of water being used to facilitate a clean disposal.

Secondly, waste should be disposed of in small quantities. Large quantities usually use more water when flushing in the garbage disposal. Lastly, warm water can be used where applicable during garbage disposal. More information and grabage disposal reviews can be found in Disposal Magazine. Warm water is known to drain garbage faster than cold water. However, care should be exercised because warm water may soften the wastes making it difficult for the garbage disposal to grind. Therefore, cold water is always recommended because the waste is hardened for easy grinding.

Another tactic to ensure even less water wastage, use of modern technologically advanced kits to dispose the garbage is advisable. Modern garbage disposal kits come with chemical disinfectants to prevent bad odor. They are also portable, applicable to a wide range of situations, and use way less water. They are also much cheaper and can be customized for different kitchens. Despite all these advantages, the general population has been slow in adopting them for use in homes.

Lastly, when disposing liquid waste down a drain, care should be taken to ensure that the water has sufficient pressure to flush the waste completely. Higher flushing pressure prevents wastage of water.


In conclusion, water and energy saving in kitchens should not be taken for granted. The kitchen faucets and garbage disposals are the areas that utilize more water, and use of the right units can help in water saving. With respect to kitchen faucets, proper selection, and efficient use is the way to go. On the other hand, a garbage disposal can assist in both water and energy saving if used appropriately.

Government Supports Energy Saving Appliances in 2017

energy consumptionIn an attempt to ensure sustainability, governments worldwide are encouraging their citizens to save on power by focusing on efficiency in energy consumption. Several plans put forward by the governments have been forwarded in favor of such initiative. A good example is home energy efficiency and action program. This initiative supported by various governments has seen financial implications in excess of 26.8 million dollars. It targets members from low-income households and helps those in getting access to home appliances and gadgets that have been proven energy efficient.

The program has encountered good reception internationally, especially from low-income households. It differentiates itself from other programs in this field by focusing on low-income communities. Another related program of interest is the home power savings program. This program has a cost implication of over estimated 36 million dollars and has ensured energy savings in excess of about 120,000 megawatts. Such programs key mode of operation involves providing finance to specific households with the aim of purchasing energy efficient appliances such as energy saving television sets, iron boxes, and microwaves among others.

Technological interventions are also at the forefront of ensuring access to energy efficient appliances. Several applications have been developed by programmers on behalf of governments in favor of this noble initiative. An example is the smart choice application software. This program is mobile friendly and guides consumers in selecting the most energy efficient appliances in a particular product line that a customer might want to purchase. It does this by comparing energy savings of the gadgets as provided by manufacturers, together with the cost allegations. It then selects the most optimal alternative based on energy and cost consideration, but with energy consideration having more weight in the logical decision-making process.

smart choice

Another piece of application software in energy saving is the power save app. This particular application has the ability to calculate the level of energy saving every home can realize. Information about all gadgets that use power in homes is fed to the program together with information on the power consumption realized in the home over time. The application then calculates the level of efficiency a household has realized by use of the information reprogrammed into the gadgets. Interestingly, it goes further to publish the names of the most energy efficient homes online.

shower haeadAnother area that is least expected, yet in the recent past has proven dependable in terms of energy savings is showerheads. First, when selecting a showerhead, water savings have to be considered. High water bills are just as much as a nuisance as high power bills. Secondly, if your shower cap has a water heating system attached to it, energy savings in this frontier need to be considered.As stated in Finest Shower, the technology involved in energy saving showerheads involves limitation of the amount of water discharged from the showerhead together with an efficient system of heating the water as it passes through the shower cap. Adopting this energy saving method, as part of an entire holistic household power saving initiative, can realize great household benefits.

Still focusing on least expected areas that can guarantee large energy saving costs, we now turn our attention to top rated flushing toilets in the market. Toilets indeed can results in huge savings if properly considered in terms of water and power savings. With respect to water, the concept of savings is simple, proper choice of toilets that optimize water use is the way to go. On the other hand, focusing on energy savings from toilets entails a reverse form of thinking.

Other innovative solutions encouraged and supported by governments worldwide to ensure energy saving in 2017 include energy saving schemes. Governments are offering incentives in collaboration with financial institutions in favor of saving schemes that focus on energy home usage. In some countries, such savings are free, and if not, the interest accrued is paid by the government. Another innovative solution is energy based incentives and refunds. Some governments, the energy saving target per household is set by the government. Incentives are then given to achieve these objectives. Furthermore, over achieving the targets can lead to refunds of a percentage of the bill paid for power. This keeps the citizens highly motivated and brings them on board the governments’ energy saving initiatives.

energy savingAnother way that governments are supporting energy saving initiatives in 2017 is by facilitating the creation of various energy plans that best suit a consumer. The consumer gets a wide range of energy plans with a touch of energy savings on each. Lastly, governments have invested in information technology to keep their citizens informed about the need for energy saving. The need for the same is taught in different academic institutions, together with sponsored adverts in electronic media, to ensure everyone is well informed about the nobility of energy saving ventures. Some governments go a step further and sponsor competitions in academic institutions to encourage students to come up with technologies that can guarantee energy savings. This has the effect of not just motivating students but also aiding them in applying their theoretical knowledge to the contemporary issues. It also keeps them informed about the governments’ commitment to energy saving plans and related initiatives.

Instead of focusing on cutting energy costs, we need to shift gears and focus on energy generation. In this respect, sludge from toilets can be used as a basic raw material for power generation. More like what happens in biogas digesters. Estimations from the scientific community predict that proper use of toilet sludge to generate power in households’ can yield enough power to sustain all basic household gadgets that use electricity in quantities of less than two hundred and forty volts.

In conclusion, energy savings will be the focus of many governments in 2017. The governments have come up with very innovative methods of bringing their citizenry on board this initiative. Programs focusing on energy savings are examples. Other examples include focusing on technology and looking for energy saving ventures in the least expected places like toilets and showerheads. Here is a cool website about the top showerheads. Collaborating with financial and academic institutions in this venture is another tactic governments are using to achieve energy saving objectives.

Home Climate Control To Help Reducing Energy

ecosystemThe modern homes are no longer just merely habitats. Instead, they comprise of a delicate ecosystem in which human beings, animals, and plants coexist. This is especially so in cases where small gardens with aesthetic flowers, plants, pets, and reptiles have found their way into our homes. These living things deserve an ideal environment just as the humans. With this in mind, some form of home climate control is expected in almost all modern homes.

home controlNowadays, the need for homes to be just at the right temperature is demanded more than ever. As if that is not enough, other aspects of the environment in homes are controlled too. This may range from humidity to even precipitation in some cases. What is more, some homes even go a step further and attempt to simulate winds and other environmental conditions so as to produce a feel as close to nature as possible. Amazingly, in more advanced home climate controlled environments, even the specific chemical components in the air like oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen are controlled.

The outlined specifics place a very high demand on technology. Designers of home climate control gadgets have to factor in several environmental requirements in their gadgets. Even more, the modern consumer has greatly evolved. People are now more technologically empowered. Furthermore, folks prefer convenience in whatever they do nowadays. Again, this places a very high demand on home climate control so that people can live in perfect conditions. Manufacturers of climate control devices are now factoring the convenience use of the gadgets they design.

smart thermostatLuckily, technology has also evolved over the years. Such demands would have been a big burden to a scientist in the past centuries. In the 21st century, the advent of smart technology, advanced computer systems, and the internet make even the most unexpected changes in the way we live. A trip to the shopping mall to buy a smart wifi thermostat can illustrate this point better. The alternatives at the customers’ disposal are nothing short of surprising.

To understand home climate control better, the following is an explanation of the scientific principles used in home climate control systems.

Operations of home control devices

Science has established that to effectively control the climate in homes, three factors are very important; a functional heating system, a ventilation system, and an air conditioning system. The combination of the three can manipulate thermodynamic principles, with a specific focus on fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and refrigeration to produce the desired microclimate appreciated in most residential areas.

Heating systems

Such systems use appliances that produce heat. They have a warmth functionality in a home climate control system. Heat pumps are the main appliance in most modern home climate controls systems. They work by extracting heat from almost anything and consequently using it to warm homes.

Ventilation system

The main purpose of this function is usually to exchange air. Fresh air from the environment is let in while stuffy air in residential homes is released out. A form of a filter has to be installed in most ventilation to ensure air entering into the building is of the required quality. Such things like dust particles, bad odors, and bacteria have to be removed from the air before it is ready to be used by human beings. Ventilation systems can be either mechanical in nature. For instance, motors rotate fans that bring in the air while the natural scientific principles are exploited to ensure the natural flow of air in and out of buildings.

Refrigeration system

This has the cooling functionality in home climate control systems. A refrigerating fluid is circulated around the area to be cooled. It absorbs energy from the environment leaving the environment cooler than before. In most modern systems, the refrigeration and the heating systems are combined and work reversibly, that is to mean that a refrigeration system can also work as a heating system.

Smart thermostats

smart thermostat 2Based on the scientific principles outlined, a home control system has the following components; a heating system, a ventilation system, and refrigeration system. Additionally, modern home climate control systems have added functionality to ensure convenience of use. A good example is a smart thermostat.

Smart thermostats have incorporated smart technology in their operations. Therefore, they can be controlled remotely via an electronic gadget like a computer or mobile phones. An application is first created and installed on a phone, tablet, or computer. The application is then linked to the home climate control thermostat. The gadget and thermostat communicate remotely via several internet and telecommunication signals. Since a smart thermostat can be preprogrammed, it can control and issue commands to the system. Interestingly, the user can operate it remotely like the way you can open the door locks to your car by pressing a button on the car keys remotely.

In the recent past, smart thermostats have seen an increase in popularity. Apart from the climate control in the house, another area where they have encountered good reception is in wine cooling. Wine coolers, as the name suggests are coolers specifically designed for wines. They are slightly different from general refrigerators. They have a variable cabinet size to accommodate wines of different tastes and sizes. The units are classier and luxurious as compared to other coolers, suitable for any modern home. Since wine coolers mostly attempt to regulate the temperature of wines, thermostats are now being used to regulate wine storage temperature.

The thermostat can be programmed or just controlled by the user to set the temperature required in the cooler. The convenience of controlling the temperature of your wine remotely is now becoming popular among several homeowners. You are far away from home but still want the wine to be at just the right temperature when you get there. Well, in this particular case, smart thermostats for your wine cooler can be the best choice. Using smart technology, you can simply press a button on your mobile gadget and get everything done without your presence. Smart technology, the future is here.

Rain Harvesting for Entire Home Water Consumption

rain harvestingRainwater harvesting entails capturing and diverting rainwater to homes or storage sites for consumption, domestic and industrial use. It has several advantages. First, it provides an alternative to conventional water supply methods and systems like piped water from municipal councils or bore holes. Furthermore, it supplements water demands placed on standard water supply systems. Secondly, it prevents most of the negative aspects associated with rainwater such as soil erosion. Lastly, the water harnessed from rainwater harvesting is generally considered clean and can, therefore, be used in almost all applications that utilize water.

Components of rainwater harvesting systems

Rainwater harvesting systems vary in nature and technology. Nevertheless, there are components common to all water harvesting systems from the design standpoint. This includes a system of capturing the rainwater and channeling it away from the capturing point, a system of storage, and a system of treating the water to ensure it’s safe for use. Treatment of water is also done to reduce hardness that is usually associated with rainwater. Capturing and conveyance systems usually use an elaborate system of pipes and storage tanks.

Reverse Osmosis, water filters, water softeners and other chemicals are used in the treatment of the water. Read the following detailed discussion about the various rainwater harvesting components.

Water capturing, conveyance and storage

rain harvesting 2 The basic requirement for any rainwater harvesting system to be used is low permeability and a slight gradient. This ensures that there is no accumulation of debris on the capturing device. Gutters, in addition to downspouts, can be used for this purpose. In conveyance systems, aspects such as rusting should be put in mind when selecting or designing a conveyance system. Even though it’s expensive in terms of money, galvanized iron pipes are generally recommended. A cheaper alternative to this is PVC pipes. During storage, modern storage tanks are suggested instead of traditional ones. What is more, an ideal cover for the storage tanks is advisable to ensure there is no water contamination.

Water treatment

Water treatment attempts to remove the harmful and non-beneficial aspects of water properties. In its most basic form, it involves ro-system, water filtering, and water softening.

Water filters and water filtering methods

water filtersWater filtering methods attempt to remove unwanted particles from harvested rainwater. The materials are responsible for the harmful impurities. The most basic water filtering methods are sedimentation, use of heat and light separation. Sedimentation uses gravitational principles to settle particles in water at the bottom of sedimentation tanks. This then facilitates their removal. Heat use is mostly through boiling to kill all unwanted pathogens in water making it safe for drinking. Sometimes the light is used. The ultraviolet rays of sunlight are harnessed to kill unwanted bacteria in the water.

Chemical methods of water filtering are more popular nowadays due to their effectiveness and applicability in large-scale situations. Some of the common chemicals used in these types of water filters include chlorine, bromine, iodine, hydrogen peroxide, and lime. Chlorine is used in municipal water systems and is preferred because it is cheap and effective. It can also be bought in small quantities for treating rainwater harvested at homes. Bromine is a cheaper alternative to chlorine. Even though not popular, iodine is equally effective in killing harmful pathogens in water. Lime and hydrogen peroxide are mostly used to get rid of water hardness.

Water softening methods

Water softening involves the removal of mineral elements from the water. The elements include calcium and magnesium, which are responsible for the hard properties of water. Several water-softening methods are inexistent today. The basic principles they use is to reduce the quantities of calcium, magnesium and other metal ions from the water. The most common of these water-softening methods is the use of lime. This method takes advantage of the chemical properties of lime that enable it to react with metal ions. The lime is added to the hard water thereby softening it. The resulting water is more compatible to soap.

Another chemical method used in water softening is the use of recharged resins. Sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide are used in this process to replace the magnesium and calcium ions in the water solution. A more popular method used in water softening is distillation. The limitation to this method is the cost implications. The latest technological intervention with respect to water softening is reverse osmosis. This method uses the scientific principle of osmosis to remove metal ions from water. Just like in any process of osmosis, a semi-permeable membrane is used to filter out molecules larger than water particles. Rainwater is pushed through the membrane in order to separate the impurities. The main limitation of this method is the recurrent need for membrane replacement and the fact that it can only be applied in very specific instances.

Electronic methods of water softening have emerged in modern times. The methods, however, do not remove the metal ions from water. Instead, they attempt to reduce their non-attractive properties. Softened water is used for washing clothes, bathing, and hair cleaning. Showering with hard water leaves the skin looking rough. Also, it makes the hair feel dull and hard. Therefore, water softeners are essential to eliminate such problems.

Summing up, rainwater harvesting should be considered as an alternative to conventional water provision methods like municipal water supply. The basic components of a water harvesting system include; a system of capturing, conveying and storage of water, together with a good system of water treatment. Water treatment involves reverse osmosis or water filtering, as well as water softening. All of them attempt to remove impurities and other harmful pathogens in water. It also helps in reducing the level of hardness in water.

The water treatment methods can be grouped into physical, chemical and electronic. Physical methods like the use of water filters are more popular. On the other hand, Chemical methods like the use of chemical water softeners are less popular and mostly used in large scale. Latest developments, nevertheless, have solved this problem by coming up with chemical solutions for small-scale applications.