Dwarf Chain Loaches 101: Care, Look, Diet, Mate |Updated| 2024

By: Martin McAdam
Updated: February 16, 2023

Here, we will share the Dwarf chain Loaches complete care guide. Dwarf Chain Loaches are some of the most beautiful fish found in the world.

They are very peaceful, and you can keep them with almost any other non-aggressive fish. It is advisable to have at least 20 gallons of aquariums for keeping these guys, but up to 55 gallons will be nice.

Even if they are small, Dwarf Chain Loaches can be very aggressive towards each other or other fish in the tank. So having a larger aquarium will help to avoid this behavior.

Species Summary

Scientific NameAmbastaia sidthimunki
Common NamesDwarf Chain Loach, ladderback loach, pygmy loach, chain loach, or chain botia
Max Size2 inches
Lifespan8-12 years
pH Range6.0-7.5
Difficulty LevelBeginner
OriginThailand, Southern Asia
Minimum Tank Size20-50 gallons

Dwarf Chain Loaches have a beautiful silver body with black bands. They can grow up to 2 inches in length and live about 12 years in the aquarium. Females are usually larger than males and are much more rounded in shape.

This fish will do best in a well-planted aquarium with lots of hiding places to feel safe. Dwarf Chain loaches are found in Thailand. They can be found in rivers where the water is still, and they live on sand and gravel in the river.

Dwarf Chain loaches are peaceful fish that can be crawled with almost any tank mate, but they also have a bad reputation for being finicky eaters. If you don't provide them with the right foods, they will not eat anything except algae wafers or blanched vegetables.

They are also known to lose their color and be more transparent if they aren't getting the right foods. The best way to avoid this is to provide them with high-quality flake food, sinking pellets, and blanched vegetables.

Dwarf Chain Loaches are Cyprinids and share the most common characteristics, such as streamlined bodies, upturned mouths with prominent lower lips, and a single pair of barbels at the mouth.

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Dwarf Chain Loaches Appearance

Dwarf Chain Loaches have a steel blue or gray color with a lighter-colored underbelly. They have large but round black spots that run from the head to tail in varying concentrations, and some fish will have more spots than others.

Dwarf Chain Loaches Appearance

However, their coloring is not as noticeable when the aquarium light isn't on since they reflect most of it. Under good lighting, their color will show up very well.

Males are usually larger with longer fins; their pelvic fins are pointed and extend past the anal fin, while the females' pelvic fins are rounded and don't extend past the anal fin.

Dwarf Chain Loaches are some of the easiest fish to maintain in a tank. They are hearty and forgiving of water conditions, which makes them great fish for beginners.

However, they can be somewhat difficult to feed if one doesn't have a mature filter or substrate fully seeded with bacteria.

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Dwarf Chain Loaches Lifespan

Dwarf Chain Loaches have an average life span of 10 to 12 years. But they can live up to 15 years when in the wild.

Dwarf Chain Loaches Size And Growth Rate

Although Dwarf Chain Loaches can grow up to 2.5 inches, they are usually no more than 1.5 inches on average in captivity.

Sexing Dwarf Chain Loaches (Males Vs. Females)

When you first purchase your Dwarf Chain Loaches, there is no clear way to distinguish between the males and the females. However, after a few weeks or months of owning them, you might notice that the male has larger, pointed pelvic fins, while the females are rounded.

Breeding And Reproduction In Captivity

Breeding these fish is nearly impossible, as most hobbyists will tell you. If one has a large enough tank setup and is persistent, getting them to breed under the right conditions might be possible.

However, there have been a few rare instances where the male and female have been kept together for an extended period and then given a sizeable live food source such as earthworms, bloodworms, brine shrimp, or daphnia.

Dwarf Chain Loaches Breeding

After a couple of weeks, some females will be ripe with eggs and ready to release them.

Some people have been able to get them to breed, and they will lay several hundred eggs on the tank glass. The parents don't guard their offspring but leave them on the glass until they become free-swimming and start eating normal food.

The gestation period lasts anywhere from 3-6 months, with the fry becoming free swimming at about 4 weeks.

Males are believed to release their sperm into the water column, where the females pick it up. The fertilized eggs will be retained in the female's body until she is ready to release them.

During this time, they may deposit them on plants or substrates, but there have been reports of them holding onto them for several months before releasing the fry.

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How Are They Different From Other Loaches

Dwarf Chain Loaches are different from most other loaches because they can tolerate more acidic water better.

Their water parameters should be anywhere from blackwater conditions to low-moderate alkalinity levels.

For a substrate, you could use either smooth gravel or sand substrate. The tank must be cycled before these fish are added to the tank.

These fishes should be kept in groups, while the Dwarf Chain Loach is very territorial and will not interact well with others. It's best to keep it alone or with other peaceful bottom-dwell species like the Clown Loach, Kuhli Loach, or Scissortail Rasbora.

Its nocturnal nature means that it sleeps during the day and becomes active once the lights are turned off.

As for the water parameters they live in, you should aim to have low-moderate levels of water movement. They also need some driftwood or other areas to hide and feel safe.

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Dwarf Chain Loaches Behavior & Temperament

They are peaceful bottom-dwellers, which means that they shouldn't harass other inhabitants of the tank. However, if kept together, they may attack their kind, so it's best to house this species alone or with other non-aggressive fish.

Even though they are peaceful, Dwarf Chain Loaches can be very territorial regarding their space. They tend to become aggressive towards other types of loach and should not be kept with any other type.

Dwarf Chain Loaches may also nip the fins of slow-moving fish in a community tank, so be mindful of this if you keep them in a community setup.

Dwarf Chain Loaches Behavior & Temperament

They can become aggressive towards other loaches and may nip the fins of slow-moving fish, so avoid keeping them with any other type of fish that could harm them.

Dwarf Chain Loaches are very peaceful and should not bother other types of fish that aren't considered food. This makes them a great community fish for tanks with small, docile species like Kuhli Loaches or Clown Loaches.

Even though they spend most of their time hiding out during the day under driftwood or rocks, Dwarf Chain Loaches are very friendly when they get to know their owner.

It may take a little while for them to become comfortable in your tank, but once they do, it becomes gratifying to watch them out and about during the day.

Males also tend to be more outgoing, while females remain hidden in the rocks and plants on the bottom.

Dwarf Chain Loaches Complete Care Guide

Here, we will share a complete care guide for dwarf chain loaches like tank size, tank mates, etc.

Dwarf Chain Loaches Food & Diet

Dwarf Chain Loaches are omnivores, so they must be fed meaty and plant-based foods daily. They should be fed sinking pellets at least twice daily but can also benefit from occasional flakes that sink slowly if the fish is picky.

Foods To Feed

  • Tropical Omnivore Fish Flakes: Tropical Omnivore Fish Flakes are sinking, plant-based flakes that can be used to supplement the diet of Dwarf Chain Loaches.
  • Hikari Sinking Carnivore Pellets: Hikari Sinking Carnivore Pellets are sinking, meaty pellets that can be used to supplement the diet of Dwarf Chain Loaches.
  • Hikari Algae Rounds: Hikari Algae Rounds are sinking, plant-based pellets that can be used to supplement the diet of Dwarf Chain Loaches.

Dwarf Chain Loaches are bottom feeders that eat small insects, worms, and crustaceans. You can create a balanced diet by feeding them sinking pellets for omnivores daily and live foods like worms or shrimp once a week.

Dwarf Chain Loaches Food & Diet

Insects, worms, and shrimp can be bought at your local pet store in either live or freeze-dried forms.

Dwarf Chain Loaches Diet Foods To Avoid

You should not feed your Dwarf Chain Loaches any food with high amounts of protein because this can damage their kidneys.

Foods to avoid include shrimp pellets, fish flakes, brine shrimp, and bloodworms.

Feeding Frequency

Dwarf Chain Loaches should be fed sinking pellets for omnivores daily and live food once a week.

If you don't want to feed live food, you can leave some insects or worms in the tank for them to eat at their leisure.

Give your Dwarf Chain Loaches plenty of hiding places like plants and caves to avoid each other during feeding.

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Dwarf Chain Loaches Tank Size

Dwarf Chain Loaches are generally considered good tank fish because of their peaceful nature, so long as they are the only type in the tank.

It's important to remember that they will need at least 10 gallons for juveniles and about twice when they reach adulthood. They also do best in soft, acidic water, meaning the environment must be set up with this in mind.

Adult Dwarf Chain Loaches can grow to around 3 inches long and need at least 20 gallons of water for every adult loach you keep.

Making sure there is plenty of room for them to find places where they can hide will also make them feel more comfortable and help them to come out during the day.

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Dwarf Chain Loaches Tank Mates

Dwarf Chain Loaches should not be kept with any other type of loach or fish that could consider prey. They get along well with small, peaceful species like Clown Loaches and Kuhli Loaches but will become aggressive towards other types if they see them as food.

Since Dwarf Chain Loaches spend most of their time hiding out during the day, they also do best in tanks with slow-moving fish that don't threaten them.

Dwarf Chain Loaches are very peaceful and behave much like the Siamese Algae Eater in that they will eat hair algae off live plants.

They can be kept in a tank with other bottom-dwelling species, but it's essential to be mindful that they will fight with others for personal space.

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Tank Region

Dwarf Chain Loaches spend most of their time hiding out during the day under driftwood or rocks, but they do come out to explore the open areas of the tank around feeding time.

They are non-aggressive fish that get along well with others in terms of species, though females tend to remain hidden in the rocks and plants on the bottom while males are more outgoing.

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Tank Decorations

Dwarf Chain Loaches do best in tanks with at least a couple of hiding places made from rocks or driftwood. They also like plenty of plants and subdued lighting, so they can come out to feed without being bothered by bright light.

It's also important to remember that they are nocturnal, so the tank should be set up with this in mind.

Heater and Thermometer

An adjustable heater should maintain a temperature of around 78 degrees Fahrenheit. A thermometer should also be placed in the tank near the heater and checked at least once a week (preferably more often) for accuracy.

Ideally, Dwarf Chain Loaches should be kept in waters between 68° to 86°F. They do best in soft, slightly acidic water with a pH level of 6.0 to 7.5, with lots of tannins for the acidity levels to absorb.

The water hardness should be kept at 5-20 dH.


Regarding filtration, regular power filters should be enough if they are efficient and rated for the tank size. The water shouldn't be changed very often because Dwarf Chain Loaches don't produce too much waste and like soft, acidic water conditions.

Here is a list of suggested filters:

  • Whisper EX Series Power Filters: Whisper EX Series Power Filters are small yet efficient power filters that can be used in tanks with up to 3 gallons of water.
  • Aqueon Quietflow Internal Power Filters: Aqueon Quietflow Internal Power Filters are excellent for up to 10 gallons of tanks.

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Dwarf Chain Loaches are nocturnal, so the tank should be set up with this in mind. A low-wattage incandescent bulb can be used at night to give them enough light to come out and feed.

It's essential not to use bright lights during the day because they can become stressed if their environment is too bright.

Also, note that these loaches will sleep during the day and become more active once the lights turn off due to their nocturnal nature.


Different species members like to stay hidden during different parts of the day, so it's important to provide a good variety of hiding spots throughout the tank.

A few rock caves and some rooted plants should be enough for a group of Dwarf Chain Loaches, but a couple more hiding spots wouldn't hurt because it can be hard to tell which areas they like to explore during the day.

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Water changes

It's important not to do too many water changes, or the Dwarf Chain Loaches will be stressed. The tank should only need to be changed 25% every 3 weeks at most, and it can likely go longer without being changed if you do regular water tests first.

Gravel vacuuming

Gravel vacuuming should be limited to once a month, and the substrate should only be vacuumed when it's visibly dirty.

It's best to use an aquarium gravel vacuum when doing water changes so that the gravel still looks natural and the Dwarf Chain Loaches aren't bothered. Just suck up some of the gravel near where they like to hide and replace it after you're done changing the water.

It's essential to vacuum the substrate when doing water changes, but make sure not to stir up too much of it by using a too-strong vacuum.


A substrate is dirt on the bottom of the tank, and Dwarf Chain Loaches like to bury themselves in it. They tend to burrow down into their habitat during the day, but they will leave it if they are scared or left out in too bright lighting conditions.

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Cleaning ornaments

It can be difficult to get Dwarf Chain Loaches out of their hiding spots, but things like ornaments may be moved around during tank cleanings, so they should be removed.

Adding New Fish

Dwarf Chain Loaches are very peaceful and shouldn't need to be kept with more aggressive species, but they can eat up some algae if there's not enough on the sides of the tank.

When introducing new fish into an established Dwarf Chain Loaches community, it's best to introduce them slowly by leaving their bags inside the tank for 24 hours so they can become acclimated to each other before being released.

If you want to add more than one new species at a time, you can pour them into a clean bucket together, mix up the water by swirling it with your hand, and then release them both simultaneously.

Loaches are bottom feeders that eat food off the substrate or out of crevices in rocks and plants, so they need to be fed sinking foods instead of pellets that float at the surface.

If you don't have dimmer light switches or timers for your lights, then it's best to leave them off when they're sleeping and use low-wattage incandescent bulbs instead.

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Cleaning The Tank Water

Tap water should be treated with a conditioner that removes heavy metals and removes chlorine before being added to the tank. Generally, these chemicals are filtered out by the substrate or plants within 24 hours, so weekly water changes will do most of the work for you.

It's best to use an aquarium gravel vacuum when doing water changes to suck up excess food and fish poop along with the gravel.

You should replace about 25% of the tank water every week, or 50% if it is a different temperature than where your Dwarf Chain Loaches live.

After you've sucked out 50% of the tank water with your gravel vacuum, you need to add 25% distilled water treated with a conditioner.

After the new water is added, tap in to allow it to get used to the temperature of your tank before releasing the Dwarf Chain Loaches inside.

Making sure you have an aquarium heater and thermostat installed can also help keep your Dwarf Chain Loaches comfortable year-round.

If you're noticing cloudy water, white film on the plants and substrate, or deteriorating plants, it's time to do a 50% water change. You can wait for 25% of the tank to go through its cycle every week without making any changes, which will eventually cause algae growth and damage your plants.

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Algae Can Be Good Or Bad

You can't help it when living in a glass box with lights over your head, but the tank will get algae growing on the sides occasionally. Because of how bright and warm they keep the tanks, algae thrive so well.

Although you shouldn't scrub off algae because this could break down pieces of rocks and plants, you can use an algae scraper to remove it.

Using a gravel vacuum and changing the tank water is your best bet for getting rid of algae in its early stages before it gets too thick.

Ammonia Levels

The Ammonia levels should be kept at zero, and the nitrite levels should also stay at zero. You can keep nitrates down by performing water changes every week.

Oxygen Levels

It's essential to keep the oxygen levels high because Dwarf Chain Loaches have a labyrinth organ that allows them to breathe air from the tank top.

If you notice your Dwarf Chain Loaches are resting on the grass, gravel, or substrate at the bottom of their habitat, it could be because there isn't enough oxygen in the tank.

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Nitrates And Nitrites Level

Nitrates and nitrites should be kept at 0 because Dwarf Chain Loaches are very sensitive to environmental changes.

You can keep your tank's water parameters in check by performing weekly water changes, cleaning the substrate, scraping off algae when it starts to grow, and keeping an eye out for debris in the tank.

If you notice your Dwarf Chain Loaches swimming quickly around the tank or hiding in plants or gravel, it means there is something wrong with their habitat.

Protein Skimmer

A protein skimmer is a machine that helps remove organic compounds and nitrogen from the tank. You can buy them in pet stores or online to put on your filter system, which allows you to keep suitable water parameters without much effort.

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What About Freshwater Aquarium Plants

Any plants you use must be able to survive in the tank's current parameters.

It's recommended that you only buy aquatic plants from specialized pet shops because Dwarf Chain Loaches are susceptible fish and can't tolerate any changes to their environment.

Potential Fish Diseases

  • Fish Lice: Fish lice are tiny parasites that feed on fish's slime coating. They attach themselves to Dwarf Chain Loaches and feed on their slime, not allowing them to keep their protective layer.

When this happens, they can fall sick and become an easy target for other diseases because their outer layers have been damaged.

  • Whitespot: Whitespot is a common fish disease caused by parasites that attach themselves to the body of Dwarf Chain Loaches. They weaken the fish's immune system, causing it to fall sick and die.
  • Bacterial Infections: Bacterial infections are prevalent among low-quality specimens because they're usually kept in poor conditions.

When Dwarf Chain Loaches don't receive proper water conditions, they can develop bacterial infections that lead to fin rot, red blotches on their skin, and bloody wounds.

Symptoms include rapid swimming, loss of coloration, and a bloated stomach. You should quarantine them as soon as the disease appears because it's infectious.

  • Chilodonella: Chilodonella is a parasite that attacks Dwarf Chain Loaches, causing them to lose their coloration and become covered in white spots. This disease usually leads to the death of the fish if it's not treated immediately.
  • Fungus Infections: Fungus infections are common among poor-quality specimens. They can be identified by white or grey cotton-like fungus growing around the mouth, head, and fins.

Dwarf Chain Loaches affected by fungus infections are usually very lethargic and stop eating. Treat them immediately if this happens.

  • Whitespot Plus (Flexibacter): Flexibacter bacteria cause Whitespot Plus. This condition is more infectious than Whitespot and affects the skin, gills, and fins of Dwarf Chain Loaches.

You can identify this fish disease by red spots that grow on their body. Treat them immediately if you see any infection signs because Flexibacter spreads quickly.

  • Fish Pox: Fish Pox is caused by a virus that affects Dwarf Chain Loaches, causing them to have small white cysts on their skin. This disease usually leads to secondary infections because it weakens the immune system of Dwarf Chain Loaches.
  • Uronema Disease: Uronema disease is also known as Hepatoporus fungus. It affects Dwarf Chain Loaches, causing them to develop white lesions on their skin and become weak. If left untreated, Uronema disease leads to the death of Dwarf Chain Loaches.
  • Velvet Disease (Oodinium): Velvet is caused by Oodinium algae parasites that attach themselves to Dwarf Chain Loaches, causing a change in coloration and loss of appetite. You can identify Velvet by the small white or grey spots on Dwarf Chain Loaches' body.

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Treatment And Medications For Diseases

  • Fish Lice: You can remove fish lice by bathing your Dwarf Chain Loaches in fresh water treated with Methylene Blue or Copper sulfate. Doing this treatment at least 3 times should get rid of the parasites.
  • Whitespot, Chilodonella, and Fungus Infections: A 20-minute bath with a 2% solution of Levamisole HCL will eliminate Whitespot, Chilodonella, and Fungus infections.
  • Bacterial Infections: A 20-minute bath with a 4% solution of Furan-2 will treat Bacterial infections caused by Aeromonas bacteria.
  • Fish Pox: A 7-day bath in a 0.15% solution of Acriflavine will treat Dwarf Chain Loaches with Fish Pox caused by a virus.
  • Uronema Disease: You can use Acriflavin to treat Uronema disease for 7 days or a 1-hour bath in a 0.15% solution of Methylene Blue.
  • Velvet Disease: A 7-day bath in a 0.15% solution of Acriflavine will eliminate Oodinium algae parasites from Dwarf Chain Loaches' bodies.
  • Fin Rot and Bacterial Diseases: You can use a 1-hour bath in a 0.15% solution of Methylene Blue to treat Dwarf Chain Loach's fins and skin for bacterial infections.
  • Red Spot: Use a 7-day bath in a 0.2% solution of Acriflavin to get rid of the Red Spot disease.
  • Fungus Diseases: To treat these diseases, use a 1-hour bath in a 0.2% solution of Methylene Blue or Malachite Green.

You should never use Copper sulfate to treat Dwarf Chain Loaches because it can cause irreversible damage, including death in some cases. No treatment can be applied to fish that have contracted a disease.

Once a fish falls sick, you should immediately quarantine it and treat it with a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Watch them carefully because some medications can kill Dwarf Chain Loaches if not used properly.

You also need to change 30% of the water in their tank daily and add aquarium salt at a rate of 1 tablespoon per gallon.

You should also raise the temperature in their tank to 84 degrees Fahrenheit because this can slow down parasites and reduce stress. Your medications must be made of natural ingredients, not chemicals, if you want to treat Dwarf Chain Loaches successfully.

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Advantages Of Having Dwarf Chain Loaches In Your Tank

  • Dwarf Chain Loaches are known to attack and eat black worms, so they're great for tanks with lots of snails.
  • They're peaceful fish that won't bother other animals in your tank.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches do not threaten the ecosystem because they don't pollute their environment or reproduce quickly.
  • They're peaceful and love the company of their kind, which means they can thrive in community tanks with other fish.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches are top-dwellers that feed on algae, so they help improve water quality when you put them in your tank.
  • You can use their slime as a defense mechanism to ward off other fish and their scales as a food source.
  • They're perfect for beginner aquarists who want to try keeping Dwarf Chain Loaches because they don't require any special care apart from regular tank maintenance.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches only grow up to 3 inches long, so they can fit in tanks with fish that are smaller than them.
  • You can keep Dwarf Chain Loaches with fast-moving fish because they don't like swimming around the top of your tank.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches are bottom-dwelling fish that eat algae, so you won't need to clean their tank as much as you would if you kept other kinds of fish.

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Disadvantages Of Having Dwarf Chain Loaches In Your Tank

  • Dwarf Chain Loaches are easy to scare, so they constantly dart around the tank.
  • They can't tolerate changes in water temperature and pH levels, so you must be careful when treating them for diseases.
  • You have to clean your tank regularly if you want Dwarf Chain Loaches to stay healthy, but this isn't a problem because they only grow up to 3 inches long.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches can be finicky eaters sometimes, so you need to use the right food and feed them daily.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches can dig through rocks and decorate your tank with them if you give them a chance.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches may threaten your other tank inhabitants if they're overcrowded, so you must keep them in a 20-gallon-long tank at the very least.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches aren't very active animals, so they can easily get stressed if you don't provide enough hiding places.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches may hurt themselves or die if you move their tank suddenly because this triggers the stress response in their bodies.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches are susceptible to certain types of diseases because they have weak immune systems, which means you have to treat them for the disease before it spreads to the rest of your fish.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches are susceptible to injury if there's a lack of algae growth in their tank because this is what they use as food daily.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches are prey animals that feel threatened if there's a lack of rocks in their tank, so you have to use resilient enough decor for them to hide behind at all times.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches may eat into live plants because they're bottom-dwellers, so avoid having them in tanks with live plants.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches do not reproduce in captivity, so if you want more Dwarf Chain Loaches, you must buy them from fish stores and pet stores.
  • Dwarf Chain Loaches may die suddenly for unknown reasons or refuse to eat anything unless they're starving because their digestive tract is shorter than other fishes.


Dwarf Chain Loaches can be a great addition to your fish tank as long as you take some time to research them first.

They're easy to maintain and fun to watch because they dart around the tank all day looking for food, but their weak immune system threatens the other animals in your tank, so you have to take care of them very well if you want them to stay healthy.

Dwarf Chain Loaches are perfect for beginner aquarists because they don't require any special care apart from regular tank maintenance, so feel free to add them to your tank as long as you remember their weaknesses and advantages.


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